Historical data


Estácio de Sá, nephew of Portuguese General Governor Mem de Sá, founded Rio de Janeiro City on the first of March 1565, after commanding the expelling of the French who had settled in Guanabara Bay led by Admiral Nicolau Durand de Villegagnon.

The first idea of police organization in the new town arose on September 15, 1566, when the Governor decided to nominate the first functionaries, among them Francisco Fernandes, alcayde and jailer of the city.

Then the City Governor held the three powers: legislative, executive and judicial. So he created taxes, imposed penalties, nominated functionaries and could even declare war.

In 1603, the city government began to be ruled by the "Ordenações Filipinas" (a royal code), which created institutions such as the "Ouvidoria Geral" (a general magistrate) of Rio de Janeiro, in 1619, which, besides having functions of justice, proceeded the election of the land judges, examined prisons, opened inquiries, received denunciations against prejudicial postures to the people etc.

Then came the policing done by the inhabitants, by blocks, so that they were called "quadrilheiros" (from "quadra" = block), who were directed by the alcaydes and later by the land judges.

A municipal chamber organized the municipal postures.

With the transference of thePortuguese Royal Family to Brazil in 1808, the Police started to be regulated, have structure, and an important social role.

The Police General Superintendence of the Court of the State of Brazil was created by charter of D. João VI on the fifth of April of that year, centralizing the police attributes of competence belonging to several authorities such as the "Ouvidor Geral", the inferior and superior alcaydes, the "quadrilheiros", the road and assaults captains.

The first Police General Superintendant was Councillor Paulo Fernandes Viana who organized the police administration as it used to be in Lisboa.

On June 22, 1808, the Police Secretary was created and its functionaries were charged with the fiscalization of public amusement, registration of vehicles and ships, emission of passports etc. The decree of May 13, 1809 created the Militar Division of the Royal Police Guard and on May 25, 1810 the position of Police Commissioner.

The Police General Superintendence went through the phase of the Brazilian politic emancipation movement, which finally culminated on September 7, 1822; it was a period when the Police nationalist influence by order of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, "The Independence Patriarch".

During the period of the Police General Superintendence the separation between the police and the judiciary jurisdictions was tried with the creation of the Peace Judgeship in 1827.

In 1841 the Empire Police Chieftaincy was created. The remarkable fact in this period is the institution of the police inquiry. The law of December 3 of the same year transferred to the Police the judiciary attributes of guilt formation.

The regulation 120, from 1842, defined the police functions, dividing the Police into administrative and judiciary ones. It charged the Justice Minister with its supreme command throughout the Empire and established a hierarchy of powers; in the Provinces, the polices was commanded by its presidents, in the Court Municipality and in the ones of the Provinces by police chiefs and in the districts by the delegates and subdelegates.

Once the Republic was proclaimed on November 15, 1889, Rio de Janeiro City, which was the Empire capital, turned out to be the Federal District.

Law 947 from 1902 authorized the Government to reorganize the city police service and create the Police Chieftaincy.

This law and some other complementary ones gave Rio de Janeiro Police the first great structure whose model influenced posterior reforms.

Among the most important innovations in the first republican period are the institution of the police career, the outfit of a technical police, and implantation of a politic and social police.

In 1944, the Federal District Police became the Public Security Federal Department, which was charged with the police services and public security in the Federal District and with the services of coast guard, aerial and boundary police all over the national territory. It conserved its denomination and attributes until 1960 when the federal capital was transferred to Brasília and Guanabara State was created.

The new Federation Unit created the Public Security Secretary, which centralized the direction of police and penitentiary services, including the "state militia" and the Fire Brigate.

A Police Force was created in Guanabara State: it was a corporation of policeman in uniforms, which absorbed the ancient civil guards existence.

The fusion of the City-State of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro State in 1975 into a single Rio de Janeiro State determined the union of its policial institutions.